I was talking to a friend who is new to programming. He asked me a simple, innocent question. I was very amused by his question that I decided to make a blogpost to answer it.

The question is: why if I print a function in Python, it shows me the memory address of the function, instead of the contents of the function?

This is a beautiful question that I am going to answer in a long way. Along our way, we are going to cover some of the most misunderstood things about Python. We are also going to do some bad things that are for the general good.

First, let’s ask a question. What is a function?

A function in Python is simply a variable that you can call. Well, what is a variable? Believe it or not, for most people, It’s actually not exactly obvious what a Python variable is. For instance, take a look at this code and what it outputs:

>>> x = ['chad']
>>> y =  x
>>> x.append('virgin')
>>> y
['chad', 'virgin']


>>> x = 'chad'
>>> y =  x
>>> x = 'virgin'
>>> y

Hmm, why the difference? Why did changing x change y in the first case but not in the second case?

The answer lies in the idea of mutability, which is tied to what a variable is. In Python a variable is a pointer to a value that lives somewhere in memory. Updating a variable in Python could mean two things: either the value that the variable points to is updated, OR a new value is created somewhere in memory and the variable is updated to point at the new value. So what decides which way it is going to be? The answer is in the mutability of that value. Immutable values are values that once created in memory, that cannot be changed

Immutable values includes things like integers, booleans, strings, and tuples. That is right. Integer values cannot be changed in Python. That means that in a simple for loop like the following:

for i in range(3):

A new value containing the numbers 0, 1, or 2 is created during each loop interation and then the variable i is updated to point at the new value. If you don’t believe it, you can get and print the memory address of the value of i using the id function. You will see that the memory address of the variable changes on every iteration:

>>> for i in range(3):
...    address = id(i)
...    print(f"{address} -> {i}")
4522253008 -> 0
4522253040 -> 1
4522253072 -> 2

So, a variable in Python is a pointer to a value. Functions are variables. The value of a function is an object that contains information about the function’s arguments and the instructions that are followed to execute it. Can we mess with that object? Of course.

We define a function called add_one:

>>> def add_one(x):
...    return x + 1

Currently, when we print this function, we get:

>>> print(add_one)
<function add_one at 0x10db26af0>

That is not too helpful. Can we mess with the function to make it print its instructions? Let’s try.

The first step in messing with any object in Python is checking its dir, which returns the names of all of its attributes that are in existence. This usually reveals a lot of useful information about any object, regardless of whether or not you should be able to edit those information.

Let’s dir it:

>>> for attribute_name in dir(add_one):
...     attribute_value = getattr(add_one, attribute_name)
...     print(f"{attribute_name}: {attribute_value}")

Usually by trial and error, you can quickly investigate how those attributes affect the behaviour that you are trying to change. In this case, I found that by changing __qualname__, I can get the function to print any string I want instead of its name:

>>> add_one.__qualname__ = 'HEY I WAS MESSED WITH':
>>> print(add_one)
<function HEY I WAS MESSED WITH at 0x10db26af0>

Interesting. The last step is to change the printed into something useful, the source code of that function. Python is so cool that it makes it possible to get the source code of any function. This is done using the getsource function in the inspect module:

>>> import inspect
>>> print(inspect.getsource(add_one)):
def add_one(x):
    return x + 1

So finally, if we set add_one.__qualname__ to inspect.getsource(add_one) we get the desired effect:

>>> add_one.__qualname__ = inspect.getsource(add_one)
>>> print(add_one)
<function def add_one(x):
    return x + 1
 at 0x1025d94c0>


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